First Aid; CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) Training Guidelines:

What Is CPR?

CPR is a key part of the chain of survival. The chain of survival describes the links which gives best chance of survival to a patient in cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) stands for ;

  • Cardio; Heart.
  • Pulmonary; Lungs.
  • Resuscitation; Revive.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation means reviving the heart and lungs. CPR is a technique used in an emergency, when a person’s heart has stop beating and  their breathing has stopped. Remember the 4 Rs of CPR;

  • Risk;  factors in your life that predispose you to developing heart problems or a stroke.
  • Recognize; how to recognize the signs of a developing medical emergency.
  • React; what to do when you see a developing emergency.
  • Resuscitation; how to do CPR and how to help someone who is choking.


If you find someone collapsed, you can use the mnemonic DR ABC to help you to remember what to do.

D; Danger:

  • Ensure there are no dangers to yourself, other bystanders or the casualty.
  • Ask yourself- why has the casualty collapsed?. Are there any Hazards? Am I at risk?.
  • Danger could be; Moving vehicles, electricity, water, other people and smoke/fire etc.
  • Only help if it is safe to do so.

R; Response:

  • Try and wake the casualty up- are they responsive.
  • Kneel by his/her head, shout loudly in the both ears and tap them on the shoulders.
  • If no response, the casualty is unconscious.
  • This is an emergency situation.
  • Try and attract attention to yourself/the casualty by shouting for help.
  • However, do not leave the casualty.

A; Airway:

  • The air way is the tube which takes air from the mouth/nose to the lungs.
  • When a casualty is unconscious, their tongue can fall backwards and block their airway.
  • This can cause an obstruction and stop the casualty from breathing.
  • To open someone’s airway, place one hand on their forehead and tilt their hear backwards.
  • Then place two fingers on the bony part of their chin lift it.
  • This is known as the ” head tilt” , chin lift” maneuver.


B; Breathing:

  • Keep your hands on the person’s head/chin.
  • place your cheek above their mouth and look at their chest.
  • Look, Listen and feel for regular breathing for up to 10 seconds.

Irregular shallow gapes is not normal breathing. This is a phenomenon known as ” Agonal breathing” and should be treated as not breathing.

C; CPR Adult CPR:

  • After an ambulance has been called, you should commence CPR.
  • First, you should give 30 chest compressions.
  • Place your hands in the center of a person’s chest, over the breastbone ( Sternum ).
  • Interlock your fingers.
  • Push down 30 times at a rate of 100- 120 compressions/minute.

Chest Compression:

Ensure your elbows are locked and your shoulder positioned above the chest. push down to a depth of about 5cm. Ensure you release fully after each compression.


Rescue Breaths:

After 30 chest compression, give 2 rescue breaths. Tilt the casualty’s head backwards, lift their chin and then pinch their nose. Make a seal over their mouth and breath if for approximately one second.


Continue the cycle of 30 chest compression to rescue breaths until help arrives. If there is more than one first aider, swap over doing chest compressions regularly. If a defibrillator arrives it should be used immediately.

Hands Position In CPR:

  • Hands in center of the chest.
  • Lower half of breastbone (sternum).
  • Second hand on the top of the first.
  • Not on lowest part of the breastbone.

cpr procedures

Rate Of CPR:

CPR is should be performed at a rate of 30 chest compression at 100-120 compression per minute allow chest to recoil between compression immediately follow with 2 rescue breaths.

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