Drugs Of Hypertension: Classification, Uses, Side Effects;

Hypertension is define as;  persistant and sustained high blood pressure that has a damaging effect on heart, kidney and brain etc. there are two type of hypertension.primary hypertension, it is most common and there is no specific underlying causes. secondary hypertension, It is due to renal, vascular or endocrine disorder etc.

antihypertensive drugs list

Classification of anti-hypertension drugs:

Angiotension converting enzymes ACE inhibitors: captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril, ramipril, benazepril, fosinopril.

Angiotension II receptor blockers: Losartan, candisartan, irbesartan, valsartan, telmisartan, olmesartan.

Direct renin-inhibitors: Aliskiren.

Calcium chennel blockers: Diltiazem, verapamil, nifedipine, amlodipine, nicardipine, isradipine, felodipine, nitrendipine.


Thiazides and related agents: hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, indapamide.

loop diuretics: Furosemide, bumetanide, torsemide.

Potassium sparing diuretics: Amiloride, triameterene, spironolactone, eplerenone.

Sympatholytic agents:

Centrally acting sympatholytics: Clonidine, alpha methyldopa.

Beta adrenergic blockers: Atenolol, metoprolol, esmolol, betaxolol, carteolol.

Beta blocker with addition alpha blocking activity: labetalol. carvedilol.

Alpha adrenergic blocker:

selective blocker; prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin.

Non selective blocker: phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine.

Ganglion blocker: Trimethaphan.

Neurone blocker: reserpine.


Arteriolar dilator: Hydralazine, minoxidil, diazoxide, fenoldopam.

primary venodilator: Nitroglycerine.

Arteriolar and venodilator: Sodium nitroprusside:


Angiotension converting enzyme inhibitors:

Mechanisms of action: Inhibits angiotension converting enzymes which result in.

  1. Dilation of arterioles…….decreases PVR and decreases in BP.
  2. Decreases in aldosterone production which lead to decrease in sodium and water retenstion and result in decreases in BP.
  3. Decreases in sympathetic out flow.
  4. Inhibits in degradation of bradykinin by ACE.

Pharmacokinetic of ACEIs:

  • Orally effective.
  • poorly cross BBB.
  • metabolized in liver.
  • Excreted in urine.

Adverse effects and contraindications: ( Mnemonics; CAPTOPRIL ).

  • Dry cough.
  • Angioedema.
  • Protenuria.
  • Teratogenic effetcs.
  • Hypotension.
  • Neutropenia.
  • Rashes and itching.
  • Loss of taste sension.
  • Hpyperkalemia.


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